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SQL injection - Java SQL API


Dynamic SQL statements are generated without the required data validation and without using parameterized statements or stored procedures.


Inject SQL statements, with the possibility of obtaining information about the database, as well as extract information from it.


Perform queries to the database through sentences or parameterized procedures. Alternatively, use escape(String) built-in function.


Authenticated attacker from the Internet.

Expected Remediation Time

⌚ 30 minutes.


Default score using CVSS 3.1. It may change depending on the context of the vulnerability.


  • Attack vector: N
  • Attack complexity: H
  • Privileges required: L
  • User interaction: N
  • Scope: U
  • Confidentiality: L
  • Integrity: L
  • Availability: L


  • Exploit code madurity: P
  • Remediation level: X
  • Report confidence: R


  • Vector string: CVSS:3.1/AV:N/AC:H/PR:L/UI:N/S:U/C:L/I:L/A:L/E:P/RL:X/RC:R
  • Score:
    • Base: 5.0
    • Temporal: 4.6
  • Severity:
    • Base: Medium
    • Temporal: Medium

Code Examples

Compliant code

The inputs used to performed queries are either parameterized or correctly validated

param =, ""UTF-8"");

cleanParam = getCleanValue(param)

String sql = ""INSERT INTO users (username, password) VALUES ('foo','""+ cleanParam + ""')"";

try {
java.sql.Statement statement = org.owasp.benchmark.helpers.DatabaseHelper.getSqlStatement()
org.owasp.benchmark.helpers.DatabaseHelper.outputUpdateComplete(sql, response);
} catch (java.sql.SQLException e) {

Non compliant code

There are some unsanitized inputs used to perform queries

param =, ""UTF-8"");

String sql = ""INSERT INTO users (username, password) VALUES ('foo','""+ param + ""')"";

try {
java.sql.Statement statement = org.owasp.benchmark.helpers.DatabaseHelper.getSqlStatement();
// Updating db model without filtering user inpu
org.owasp.benchmark.helpers.DatabaseHelper.outputUpdateComplete(sql, response);
} catch (java.sql.SQLException e) {