This is the score that we give to each type of vulnerability in order to properly categorize the risk that each of them represent for the system. To assign the correct score to the vulnerability we use the CVSS standard which has several metrics by which to assign a score. These are the mentioned metrics:
Attack Vector: This metric reflects the context by which vulnerability exploitation is possible. This metric value (and consequently the Base Score) will be larger the more remote (logically, and physically) an attacker can be in order to exploit the vulnerable component.
Attack Complexity: This metric describes the conditions beyond the attacker’s control that must exist in order to exploit the vulnerability. As described below, such conditions may require the collection of more information about the target, or computational exceptions. Importantly, the assessment of this metric excludes any requirements for user interaction in order to exploit the vulnerability (such conditions are captured in the User Interaction metric).
User Interaction: This metric captures the requirement for a human user, other than the attacker, to participate in the successful compromise of the vulnerable component. This metric determines whether the vulnerability can be exploited solely at the will of the attacker, or whether a separate user (or user-initiated process) must participate in some manner.
Scope: The Scope metric captures whether a vulnerability in one vulnerable component impacts resources in components beyond its security scope. The security scope of a component encompasses other components that provide functionality solely to that component, even if these other components have their own security authority.
Confidentiality Impact: This metric measures the impact to the confidentiality of the information resources managed by a software component due to a successfully exploited vulnerability. Confidentiality refers to limiting information access and disclosure to only authorized users, as well as preventing access by, or disclosure to, unauthorized ones.
Integrity Impact: This metric measures the impact to integrity of a successfully exploited vulnerability. Integrity refers to the trustworthiness and veracity of information.
Availability Impact: This metric measures the impact to the availability of the impacted component resulting from a successfully exploited vulnerability. While the Confidentiality and Integrity impact metrics apply to the loss of confidentiality or integrity of data (e.g., information, files) used by the impacted component, this metric refers to the loss of availability f the impacted component itself, such as a networked service (e.g., web, database, email). Since availability refers to the accessibility of information resources, attacks that consume network bandwidth, processor cycles, or disk space all impact the availability of an impacted component.
Exploitability: This metric measures the likelihood of the vulnerability being attacked, and is typically based on the current state of exploit techniques, exploit code availability, or active, “in-the-wild” exploitation. Public availability of easy-to-use exploit code increases the number of potential attackers by including those who are unskilled, thereby increasing the severity of the vulnerability.
Remediation Level: The Remediation Level of a vulnerability is an important factor for prioritization. The typical vulnerability is unpatched when initially published. Workarounds or hotfixes may offer interim remediation until an official patch or upgrade is issued.
Report Confidence: This metric measures the degree of confidence in the existence of the vulnerability and the credibility of the known technical details. Sometimes only the existence of vulnerabilities is publicized, but without specific details. For example, an impact may be recognized as undesirable, but the root cause may not be known. The vulnerability may later be corroborated by research which suggests where the vulnerability may lie, though the research may not be certain. Finally, a vulnerability may be confirmed through acknowledgment by the author or vendor of the affected technology.
Privileges Required: This metric describes the level of privileges an attacker must possess before successfully exploiting the vulnerability. The Base Score is greatest if no privileges are required.
In order to check each of these metrics in much more detail, learn about all the possible values that you can give them and what they mean, and also learn about the process that produces the final score, you can visit the official web page that describes the CVSS standard by visiting this link.